Rice production

Rice production is directly dependent on climate change and weather. The Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1°C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season. High temperature boost plant growth rate and could reduce growth duration leading to shorter grain filling period which varies from 25 days in the tropics to 35 days in the temperate zone.

Weather and climate related events (i.e., growth environment of atmospheric [CO2], temperature, precipitation, and other extreme weather) are the key factors for sugarcane production. The most significant challenges for sugarcane production are increases in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, especially drought during climate change. It was also found that rainfall is negatively correlated with sugar recovery, which indicates nutrients are leached during rains.

The difference in maximum and minimum temperatures (temperature range) is widening where thermo-sensitive crops like cardamom, tea, black pepper and cocoa are grown along the high ranges. These changes in thermal and moisture regimes have resulted in climate shifts from moving Kerala from wetness to dryness within the humid climates. The impact of climate change in the form of climate variability like floods and droughts adversely affected food and plantation crops to a large extent.

Turmeric are highly depending on the timing as well as amount of rainfall. The climate change result in the shifting of the rainfall pattern affect the timing and amount of the rainfall which automatically reflect in the crop production.

Climate change has adversely affected the production of small cardamom through the years. The increased temperature also has witnessed the reduction in soil nutrient level at rapid rate and onset on insect/pest attack.

Banana production is threatened by climate change induced increase in temperature which further leads to greater water demand, which is projected to increase by 12 to 15 per cent for the last 20 years. It will also lead to spread of pests and diseases.

Cashew is grown in ecologically sensitive areas such as coastal belts, hilly areas and areas with high rainfall and humidity. The flowering, fruiting, insect pest incidence, yield and quality of cashew nut is more vulnerable for climate change. Unseasonal rains and heavy dew during flowering and fruiting periods affect the yield and quality of cashew nut.

Tapioca production is highly depending on the timing as well as amount of rainfall. Climate change especially due to global warming may alter the rainfall pattern, off seasonal rainfall and increase in precipitation lead to spread of pests and diseases results in reduction of the tapioca.

Higher temperature and CO2 concentration have counterbalanced effects on photosynthesis because they increase both photosynthetic assimilation and respiratory losses. Extreme temperatures or high levels of light intensity provoke damages to the photosynthesis machinery and a result in water stress and high evaporative demand results in production of the mango.

Studies shows that coconut production and productivity is altered due to the increased temperature and CO2 concentration. Excess rainfall results extreme pest infestation in coconut plantations, which leads to an extremely decreased coconut yield. A well distributed rainfall and proper adaptation strategies like inclusion of improved coconut cultivars, agronomic adaptations and systematic fertilizer application results an optimum production in coconut plantations in Kerala tracts.

Arecanut production is sensitive to daily temperature, daily relative humidity, annual rainfall and sunshine hours. Rainfalls during fruit development period and evening relative humidity had significant negative effect on Yield of arecanut.